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Friday, October 2, 2009

Kingdom Brak Scale
Language : Indonesia

1. History

The existence of the Kingdom can be traced Brak scale through historical relics, the statues, identify, stone brak, LIWA and sukau, and megalithic sculptures in the style of some Purawiwitan Pekon Sumberjaya. The kingdom is located on the slopes of Mount Pesagi, precisely in BELALAU mainland, south of Lake Ranau (now known as West Lampung district), in South Sumatra, Indonesia. This mountain became a crowded sanctuary visited by the public until now. This royal fame also marked the tambo-tambo made of bark and a buffalo skin.

Ancient objects other heritage strengthens evidence of this kingdom. First, a large slate of Bunuk Tuar or haur known as yellow (LIWA). High stone is 1.33 meters, width 20 cm, and below 50 cm wide. This stone Hindu reads the letter (Pallawa). Second, stone or stone kepapang in Cape Win bercangkah Know. It is estimated that this stone as a place of punishment for those who break the law. Third, the site of stone bekhak Pekon Purawiwitan Sumberjaya. Before getting to know the iron tools, people more familiar with ancient stones.

Other historical evidence of the inscription. Prof. Dr. Louis-Charles Damais, for example, had disclosed the fact Hujung inscription in his book entitled Heaven epigraphy and history Nusantara (1995). Inscription bertarikh 9 Margasira 919 Saka (12 November 997 AD) was discovered in the village of Garlic, between Liwa and Mount Pesagi. As stated in the line-7, which pulled out of this inscription is Sri Haridewa, the name of the king in Lampung. It is estimated that this king has to do with the Kingdom of Brak Scale.

Based on the evidence that historical legacy, many historians who do not dismiss the argument that the kingdom Brak Scale was really there. Among the experts referred to the history of the Dr. Fn. Fune, Groenevelt, Rampanggilay, Van Vollenhoven, LC Westenenk, and Hellfich. This means that the scale Brak is the origin region (embryo) indigenous Lampung. Residents Brak Scale gradually make the shift from time to time to various areas in Lampung and surrounding areas.

Migration process is based on a number of important events. First, tribes had been driven by Tumi fall into the hands Brak Scale axis Mr. Brak Scale when the teachings of Islam began to go into this area. Second, the process of displacement are the result of a dispute between the families. The group that did not receive more state decided to move to another area. Third, the earthquake that caused some residents to move to another place. Fourth, the existence of customary rules which stipulate that customary rights to fall or be inherited by the oldest son. Young children generally do not have rights. They finally decided to move to other areas in hopes of getting the position and social levels better.

These tribes spread process occurs through Komering River, Semangkai, Sekampung, Seputih, Tulang Bawang, Umpu Way, Rarem Way, and Way Besai. The entire flow of these rivers is the scope of the current Lampung region, except the incoming Komering River in Palembang region.

According to China's ancient book of records, copied by Groenevelt into English, that between 454 and 464 there is a story about the kingdom Full of lies between Java and Cambodia. A King of the Full or Sapanalanlinda termed (data undiscovered real name) had sent an envoy named Taruda to China with gifts of gold and silver. L.C. Westenenk said that the Full name in the kingdom can be attributed to Know, capital BELALAU District.

Kingdom Brak scale collapse over the entry of Islamic teachings. According to the existing history in the legend, there are four people Son King Pagarruyung arrived at Brak Scale, namely Umpu Belunguh, Umpu Pernong, Umpu Walking On Way, and Umpu Nyerupa. The word comes from the word Umpu Ampu, as stated in the slate in the bertarikh Pagarruyung 1358 AD Ampu Master is the name for the children of kings in Pagarruyung Minangkabau. Arriving at Brak Scale, four UMPU is then met with Mulu delivered by someone called The Moon. At Brak Scale, was founded four UMPU named pivot assembly which means Mr. or Four Four Agreed.

Through these four characters, the message of Islam began to grow. Many residents, including the tribe who embraced Islam Tumi. However, residents are reluctant to embrace Islam decided to escape to the Coastal Krui and continue across to the island of Java. Some are there who go to the region of Palembang.

Four UMPU such a big role against the establishment of the Kingdom of Brak Scale. The kingdom was then divided into four regions, with each of the four characters as a leader. First, rule Belunguh Umpu BELALAU with its capital of Cape Winning Know. This region is known as the pivot Buay Belunguh. Second, Stone ruled Pernong Umpu Brak with Hanibung capital. This region is known as the pivot Buay Pernong. Third, Umpu Walking In ruling on the Way Back Kembahang and Mother Hill State with its capital Peak. This region is known as the pivot Buay Take a Way. Fourth, Nyerupa Umpu rule with its capital at Sukau Siring Tread. This region is known as the pivot Buay Nyerupa. The Moon itself also get called Cenggiring region. However, because this region close to the pivot Buay Pernong, the region will be combined with that axis.

Tumi tribe who fled to the Coastal Krui and occupying clans retainer Five, namely Sonneratia Marga, Marga Airport, Marga Laai, and Marga Way Sindi. However, unfortunately the five areas in Lima courtier clan can be conquered by the Lemia Ralang Abstinence from Ranau Lake area, assisted by five people from the pivot retainer Mr. Brak Scale. Five retainer clan name comes from the role of the five masters who occupy the conquered regions are.

2. Territory
Brak Scale Royal authority covers an area which now is in the province of Lampung, South Sumatra, Indonesia.

3. Government Structure
As already stated above that the Royal government structures Brak Scale divided by four pivot (pivot Mr. Brak Scale), the pivot Buay Belunguh, Pernong Buay pivot, pivot Buay Take a Way In, and the pivot Buay Nyerupa.

4. The Socio-Cultural
At first, Brak scale terrain inhabited by tribes who adhered Tumi animism. This tribe glorifies a tree which they believe to be the mortuary of the gods, the tree or jackfruit Belasa Kepampang the fork. This tree has two branches, one branch is the jackfruit and the other is sebukau, which is a kind of sap wood. The specialty of this tree is located in Khasiatnya as a poison antidote. For example, if the person is exposed to the sap of its branches will be suffering from skin diseases. However, if treated with a stem so that the disease will be lost because the antidote.

After Islam was introduced in the Kingdom of Brak Scale, a lot of changes to the system of religious and belief communities. For example, a tree which is Melasa Kepapang shrine in the kingdom of Interest Tumi Scale felled by a pivot Brak Pak. The tree was later changed to Pepadun, where the throne used at the coronation Saibatin, the kings of the pivot Mr. Brak Scale and descendants. Pepadun Pepadun this is the first time in Lampung. Around the early 9th century, the Saibatin create their own characters and figures as a script known Lampung Lampung Had. Lampung had actually influenced by two elements, namely Pallawa script and Arabic letters. Lampung had a form of kinship with the characters Rencong Aceh, Bengkulu Rejang script, and the Bugis script.

There are two understandings of the meaning of these pepaduan. First, to integrate the validation or ordination that are sitting on pepaduan is king. Second, as a place for people who complain about the particulars of the kingdom or the right to make decisions. Pepaduan function only for the kings who reigned in Brak Scale. Agreement on four-axis, then the pepaduan is entrusted to someone who named Benyata to save it. He was also appointed as treasurer in Pekon Area, pivot Buay Belunguh. The existence of the treasurer's position is to avoid the seizure or the dispute between the descendants axis Mr. Brak scale in the future. One of the four UMPU and his descendants can borrow pepaduan to convert one of his descendants as king, but after use must be returned to Benyata.

In 1939, a dispute has occurred among the offspring in terms of seizure Benyata descendants of the oldest and who is entitled to keep pepaduan sepeninggalan Benyata. After the customary meeting with the approval of Mr. scale pivot Brak and Residency, it was decided that the right to keep pepaduan are those who have a straight line with Umpu Belunguh. That decision is still valid until now.

Community Lampung, including Brak Scale, was holding fast to the norms and customs, which inherited both orally and through writing letters of Ancient Lampung. Community life is usually governed by a kinship system is patrilineal in which the government is set based on customary (then men) in terms of livelihood systems, kinship, and socio-cultural life.

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